MLOps is a set of practices that includes Machine Learning, DevOps and Data Engineering elements. The main aim of the union is reliable and efficient deployment and maintenance of Machine Learning systems in production.

In other words, it is a way to turn machine learning methods and technologies into a useful tool for solving business problems.

It is important to understand that the production chain begins long before the development of the model. Its first step is to define a business problem, a hypothesis about the value that can be extracted from the data, and a business idea for applying it.

The very concept of MLOps arose as an analogy to the concept of DevOps in relation to models and technologies of machine learning. DevOps is an approach to software development that allows you to increase the speed of implementation of individual changes while maintaining flexibility and reliability using a number of approaches. These approaches include continuous development, dividing functions into a number of independent microservices, automated testing and deployment of individual changes, global health monitoring, rapid response system detected failures, etc.

DevOps defined the software lifecycle, and the idea came up in the community to use the same technique for big data. DataOps is an attempt to adapt and expand the methodology taking into account the peculiarities of storing, transferring and processing large amounts of data in a variety of and interacting with each other platforms.

 With the emergence of a certain critical mass of machine learning models implemented in business processes of enterprises, a strong similarity between the life cycle of mathematical machine learning models and the software life cycle was noticed. The only difference is that the algorithms of the models are created using machine learning tools and methods. Therefore, the idea naturally arose to apply and adapt already known approaches to software development for machine learning models. Thus, the following key stages can be distinguished in the life cycle of machine learning models:


  • defining a business idea;
  • training the model;
  • testing and implementation of the model in the business process;
  • operation of the model.


When it becomes necessary to change or retrain the model on new data in the process of operation, the cycle is restarted - the model is refined, tested, and a new version is deployed.

In this life cycle, it seems logical to use DevOps tools: automated testing, deployment and monitoring, formalizing the calculation of models in the form of separate microservices. But there are also a number of features that prevent the direct use of these tools without additional ML strapping.