In explaining what the application architecture is, let’s move away from technical terms and draw an analogy with everyday life. Look at your body. Everything that is outside (the head and body) is the front and everything inside (the heart, brain and internal organs) is back.
Geniusee is developing a payment service. The Back-end team develops technologies that are responsible for the exchange, transfer, storage, etc., and the Front-end ensures that the user can conveniently interact with the functions of the application.
Now when we’ve figured out the difference between the front and back parts, let's look at two key approaches that modern developers use: API First and Loose Coupling. They allow programmers to easily change the structure of the application. Moreover, they make sure that every single part of the application can be changed without affecting the rest of the parts.
The API First method is responsible for high speed and innovation. The idea is to enter the data and get the API required for the Front-end and Back-end development teams: it allows them to write code and test it at the same time. The advantages of the method are to reduce development costs, increase speed and reduce risks.
Life example: when you cook pasta Bolognese, you don’t need pasta first, then sauce: you can cook them in parallel. In this case, the food will cook faster, nothing will have time to cool, and friends will be able to evaluate the dish in the state in which it should be (and not as usual).
One of the features that the application team loves the API First approach is called Swagger, an open-source framework that helps developers build the architecture, design, and create documentation for their applications. Swagger automatically generates API descriptions for most languages and frameworks, for both Front-end and Back-end commands.
The next approach is called Loose Coupling, in the literal translation - a weak connection. And if in life, an example of Loose Coupling can be a cancellation of the date on Valentine's Day, then on the contrary it helps. To be more precise, this feature simplifies the connection of components on the network.
The Loose Coupling system reduces the risk of accidental changes to individual objects, without changing others - since everything is interconnected in the application, this can lead to breakdowns and vulnerabilities. So, thanks to the possibility of limiting the operation of individual connections, the system helps to find and solve the problem faster, right during testing.
Thanks to the principles of the API First and Loose Coupling, the application can act as a microservice - an application consisting of independent services that can work independently, scale freely on different devices.
Microservice architectures are better organized, as each microservice has a specific task. Their advantage is also in easy reconfiguration and rebuilding for various purposes. In addition, they are characterized by rapid deployment, fault tolerance, horizontal scaling, low entry threshold and ease of management.
Imagine a smart home where everything can be controlled and controlled with one device. Let's say this device is * core *, and the managed elements are * services *. With the main device, you can open windows, turn on the TV, or even close the curtains. This is how microservice architecture works.
But there is always an alternative, right? The second type of architecture is monolithic architecture. This means that the application is written as one unit of code, whose components are designed to work together, use the same resources and disk space. Services in such applications are closely related, and if one of them changes, the others may have problems.
Imagine a layered chocolate cake. Each new layer makes the cake even tastier, but you cannot add a strawberry layer to the middle without changing the taste and texture of the cake. We can assume that the cake has a monolithic architecture.
Application architecture is a very complex topic, and everything written above is just the tip of the iceberg.